Qualitative Research Case Study Method
The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research...
Volume 7, No. 1, Art. 21 – January 2006 The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research. Florian Kohlbacher. Abstract: This paper aims at exploring ...
Qualitative Research Case Study Method
According to babbie (2001), content analysis can be defined as the study of recorded human communications (p. But within the framework of qualitative approaches it is essential to develop the aspects of interpretationthe categoriesas closely as possible to the material, and to formulate them in terms of the material. Finally, mayring (2000a, 28) contends that qualitative content analysis can be combined with other qualitative procedures.
Primarily exploratory and explanatory in nature, case study is used to gain an understanding of the issue in research questions (flyvbjerg, 2011 merriam, 2009 simons, 2009 stake, 2006 stewart, 20). This implies that the procedures of content analysis cannot be fixed but have to be adapted depending on the subject and its context. The dominance of research using experimental designs continued through the 1960s and 1970s with quantitative empirical results considered to be gold standard evidence.
These varied definitions stem from the researchers differing approaches to developing case study methodology and often reflect the elements they emphasize as central to their designs. This analysis of complementing secondary data can help to ensure the quality of content analysis, especially validity (mayring, 2003, p. Interviews and focus groups, observations, and exploring artifacts are most commonly employed to collect and generate data with triangulation of methods and data, however, this is not exclusive.
Qualitative content analysis takes a holistic and comprehensive approach towards analyzing data material and thus achieves to (almost) completely grasp and cover the complexity of the social situations examined and social data material derived from them. Methods were required that could be used to explore factors such as participants perspectives and the influence of socio-political contexts on curriculum successes and failures (simons, 2009). As a matter of fact, this notion of to argue in favor of an integration of qualitative and quantitative methods is not limited to content analysis but has been raised by many researchers (cf.
Corresponding with these developments, in the 1970s, educational research embraced case study as a way to evaluate curriculum design and innovation (merriam, 2009 simons, 2009 stake, 1995). In fact, the effectiveness of triangulation rests on the premise that the weaknesses in each single method will be compensated by the counter-balancing strengths of another (jick, 1979, p. Figure 3 shows the steps of deductive category application.
He presented a structured process for undertaking case study research where formal propositions or theories guide the research process and are tested as part of the outcome, highlighting his realist approach to qualitative case study research. Therefore, a case study cannot be defined through its research methods, but rather in terms of its theoretical orientation and interest in individual cases (hartley, 2004, p. For this the text is paraphrased, generalized or abstracted and reduced. The so-called inter-coder reliability shows to what extent different coders agree in the coding of the same text and intra-coder reliability explains how stable the coding of one coder is. Within a feedback loop the categories are revised, eventually reduced to main categories and checked in respect to their reliability (mayring, 2000a, 12).
Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations...
Table 1: Case study elements and descriptors  A final, critical point when conducting case study research is the importance of careful preparation and planning ...
Qualitative Research Case Study Method
The case study as a type of qualitative research
The case study as a type of qualitative research 29 Introduction Case studies were one of the first types of research to be used in the field of
Qualitative Research Case Study Method
Thus, Maintaining meticulous records and a systematic chain of evidence over the duration of the study is critical as is being able to access, present and explain procedures supports the ethical integrity and rigor of the research and findings (merriam, 2009 stewart.
Theoretical frameworks or research questions are used and drawn from the literature or discipline (merriam, The continued use of case study to understand the complexities of institutions, practices, processes, and relations in politics, has demonstrated the utility of case study for researching complex issues.
Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is examined and evaluated. Even though they concede that this is not a particularly satisfactory approach, they claim that it is not infrequently used (remenyi et al.
Case Study Research Design - How to conduct a Case Study
Figure 2 step model of inductive category development (source mayring, 2000a, 11) the main idea of the procedure is to formulate a criterion of definition, derived from the theoretical background and the research question, which determines the aspects of the textual material taken into account. While having a disciplined approach to the process and acknowledging that case study can use quantitative methods, stakes approach is underpinned by a strong motivation for discovering meaning and understanding of experiences in context. This section presents the research question underlying the analysis and discussion in the following sections and gives a short outline of the paper, explaining its aim, structure and scope. Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is examined and evaluated. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines.
According to gillham (2000), the essence of content analysis is identifying statementsstatements that really say something (p. Besides, the analyzing of data is enhanced by reference to the existing literature and using this to raise questions about whether the researchers findings are consistent with or different from extant research (ibid. According to jick (1979), qualitative data and analysis function as the glue that cements the interpretation of multimethod results (p. We end with a summary of the common characteristics of case study research and a table that brings together the fundamental elements that we found common in all case study approaches to research. It highlighted the strengths of qualitative content analysis as a method that achieves to respect the credos of openness and theory-guided analysis at the same time.
Krippendorff (2004) identifies the following four sources of error that may lead to a lack of reliability (pp. Mayring, 2002 first published 1990, 2003 first published 1983). Contemporary case study research is said to have its origins in qualitative approaches to research in the disciplines of anthropology, history, psychology, and sociology (merriam, 1998 simons, 2009 stewart, 2014). Mayring (2003) additionally notes another quality criterion that has gained in significance recently (p. Clarity in this alignment is fundamental to ensuring the veracity of the research and depends on the design developed. Besides, papers and essays in english are crucial to help qualitative content analysis gain attention and dissemination internationally as well. Examples of this choice are discussed later where the philosophical variations of merriam (2009), stake (1995), and yin (2014) are explicated. If the lack of reliability cannot be attributed to a), b), or c), then the problem is usually with the coders and may perhaps be solved by more careful selection, more thorough training, shorter operation periods, etc. Nevertheless, qualitative content analysis is still a young discipline and further development and improvement might be advisable and appropriate as some of the amendments, critiques and limitations of mayrings approach show (see above sections 4. Besides it preserves the advantages of quantitative content analysis but at the same time apply a more qualitative text interpretation.The case study has been especially used in social science, psychology, anthropology and ecology. This method of study is especially useful for trying to test ...
Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods ... -...Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods [Robert K. Yin] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. ...
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Therefore, emphasis is placed on using multiple methods with triangulation to circumvent errors and understand what is happening in reality as close as possible to the truth (lincoln et al. This section provides a brief introduction to qualitative content analysis as a (text) analysis method for qualitative social research. However, the basic difference between classical content analysis and structuring within qualitative content analysis is the development and use of the coding agenda. Maintaining meticulous records and a systematic chain of evidence over the duration of the study is critical as is being able to access, present and explain procedures supports the ethical integrity and rigor of the research and findings (merriam, 2009 stewart, 2014 yin, 2014) Buy now Qualitative Research Case Study Method
Such investigations were conducted in the natural setting of those experiences with results presented descriptively or as a narrative (merriam, 2009). In fact, gläser and laudel (2004) contend that qualitative content analysis is hardly used (p. Stake (1995) recommends vignettesepisodes of storytellingto illustrate aspects of the case and thick descriptions to convey findings, a further illustration of his constructivist and interpretivist approach to case study research. Quantitative content analysis does not provide satisfactory answers to the question where the categories are derived from, and how the system of categories is developed. The integration of formal, statistical, and narrative methods in a single study, combined with the use of empirical methods for case selection and causal inference, demonstrated the versatility of case study design and made a significant contribution to its methodological evolution (ibid Qualitative Research Case Study Method Buy now
This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. On the one hand, this definition puts forth the main points of what qualitative research is about, but it also demonstrates how it is positioned or tries to position itself in contrast to quantitative research. Object of the case study identified as the entity of interest or unit of analysis program, individual, group, social situation, organization, event, phenomena, or process contextual variables include political, economic, social, cultural, historical, andor organizational factors subjectivity a consistent threadvaries in depth and engagement depending on the philosophical orientation of the research, purpose, and methods involves decisions about people, settings, events, phenomena, social processes methods specified criteria, methodical and purposive replication logic theoretical or literal replication (yin, 2014) methods of data collection interviews, observations, focus groups, artifact and document review, questionnaires andor surveys methods of analysis vary and depend on data collection methods and cases need to be systematic and rigorous a final, critical point when conducting case study research is the importance of careful preparation and planning, coupled with the development of a systematic implementation structure (flyvbjerg, 2011 merriam, 2009 stake, 2006 stewart, 2014 yin, 2014) Buy Qualitative Research Case Study Method at a discount
Kombination und integration qualitativer und quantitativer analyse 31 paragraphs. The important point here is the same as with case study research the central idea is that researchers constantly compare theory and dataiterating toward a theory which closely fits the data (eisenhardt, 1989, p. Sociological explanations between micro and macro and the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods 43 paragraphs. Grounded theory merged qualitative field study methods from the chicago school of sociology with quantitative methods of data analysis (johansson, 2003, p. As a result procedures of inductive category development were compiled (mayring, 2000a, 9, 10).
Mayring (2003) additionally notes another quality criterion that has gained in significance recently (p Buy Online Qualitative Research Case Study Method
Interaction between participants and the researcher is required to generate data, which is an indication of the researchers level of connection to and being immersed in the field. Development of case study research in education, focused on the need to determine the impact of educational programs and provide relevant evidence for policy and practice decisions that supported social and educational change in the united kingdom and the united states (ibid. Prominent case study researchers do however emphasize that an overarching methodology shapes a case study design and that multiple sources of data and methods can be used (merriam, 2009 stake, 2006 yin, 2014), thus providing the distinction between the two Buy Qualitative Research Case Study Method Online at a discount
Besides it preserves the advantages of quantitative content analysis but at the same time apply a more qualitative text interpretation. The procedure has the pretension to be inter-subjectively comprehensible, to compare the results with other studies in the sense of triangulation and to carry out checks for reliability. Having its origin in navigation, military strategy and (geodetic) surveying, the term triangulation in social research is used in a less literal sense to describe the use of multiple methods and measures of an empirical phenomenon (cf. Phd is professor and pro vice chancellor of the college of health at massey university in new zealand. In fact, as it cuts across disciplines, fields and subject matters, a complex, interconnected family of terms, concepts and assumptions surround the term (denzin & lincoln, 2000, p Qualitative Research Case Study Method For Sale
Case studies continued to be used during this time, however usually as a method within quantitative studies or referred to as descriptive research to study a specific phenomenon (merriam, 2009). As the following sections will show, the combination and mixing of different research methods bears an enormous potential for the advancement of social research. If they (agree) then we can be reasonably confident that we are getting the true picture (gillham, 2000, p. Nevertheless, qualitative content analysis is still a young discipline and further development and improvement might be advisable and appropriate as some of the amendments, critiques and limitations of mayrings approach show (see above sections 4 For Sale Qualitative Research Case Study Method
The first stage is the determination of the units of analysis, after which the dimensions of the structuring are established on some theoretical basis and the features of the system of categories are fixed. Since then mayrings works seem to have become standard literature on qualitative content analysis and some regularly appear in new editions (e. In figure 1, developed by johansson (2003) and adapted for this discussion, a summary of the evolution of case study across a timeline dating back to 1600 is displayed. This statement of denzin and lincoln (2000) in their handbook of qualitative research already shows the breadth of the term qualitative research and the multitude of its methods, but also the vagueness of this concept Sale Qualitative Research Case Study Method
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