Multiple Case Study Design
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Robert E. Stake, PhD, is a specialist in the evaluation of educational programs and case study methods. He is director of the Center for Instructional Research and ...
Multiple Case Study Design
Knowledge generated from the research process is relative to the time and context of the study and the researcher is interactive and participates in the study. While objectivity is a goal, yin also recognizes the descriptive and interpretive elements of case study. Denzin and lincoln (2011) emphasize the qualitative essence of case study, while acknowledging its evolution and fluidity with regard to accommodating varied ontologies, epistemologies, methodologies, and methods.
Case study research as a strategy for methodological exploration, according to flyvbjerg (2011) has been around as long as recorded history (p. Similar to yin (2014) and merriam (2009), a case or cases are selected for what they can reveal about topic of interest and depend on the aim and conditions of the study. According to yin what makes case study research distinct from experimental studies is the case study is investigated in context, examined in its real world setting (p.
Creswell (2014) refers to case studies as a qualitative design, while others use the term case study (flyvbjerg, 2011 stake, 1995, 2006 stewart, 2014), qualitative case study (merriam, 2009), or describe case study as an approach (simons, 2009). Qualitative research designs selection and implementation. Examples of this choice are discussed later where the philosophical variations of merriam (2009), stake (1995), and yin (2014) are explicated.
A case is selected because it is interesting in itself or can facilitate the understanding of something else it is instrumental in providing insight on an issue (stake, 2006). There are a number of definitions and descriptions presented across the literature, which can create confusion when attempting to understand case study research. The most common definitions come from the work of yin (2014), stake (1995), and merriam (2009).
Collective alignment of these elements articulates a justifiable framework for the research study and cultivates trustworthiness and the validity, reliability and credibility of the research findings. While still qualitative and inductive, it was deterministic in nature with an emphasis on cause and effect, testing theories, and an apprehension of the truth (brown, 2008 yin, 2014). Primarily exploratory and explanatory in nature, case study is used to gain an understanding of the issue in research questions (flyvbjerg, 2011 merriam, 2009 simons, 2009 stake, 2006 stewart, 20).
Stake (1995, 2006) has an approach to case study research that is qualitative and closely aligned with a constructivist and interpretivist orientation. Clarity in this alignment is fundamental to ensuring the veracity of the research and depends on the design developed. Validity of research results are verified through the scrutiny of others and, as such, adherence to mechanisms that ensure rigor in data collection and analysis is vital. Interviews are the most common form of qualitative data collection, although merriam does not stipulate prioritizing a particular method for data collection or analysis, she does emphasize the importance of rigorous procedures to frame the research process. This context led to a philosophical division in research approaches those supporting positivism and quantitative approaches and those aligned with qualitative methods embedded in constructivist and interpretivist paradigms.
Case study - Wikipedia
In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case ...
Multiple Case Study Design
Clinical study design - Wikipedia
Clinical study design is the formulation of trials and experiments, as well as observational studies in medical, clinical and other types of research (e.g ...
Multiple Case Study Design
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Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines and their philosophical underpinnings have created variety and diversity in approaches used. For stake (2006), to understand the case requires experiencing the activity of the case as it occurs in its context and in its particular situation (p. While still qualitative and inductive, it was deterministic in nature with an emphasis on cause and effect, testing theories, and an apprehension of the truth (brown, 2008 yin, 2014). The diversity of approaches subsequently adds diversity to definition and description. In the sections that follow, the nature of this complexity in explored.
Harrison, helena birks, melanie franklin, richard & mills, jane (2017). Bounding the case is essential to focusing, framing, and managing data collection and analysis. Interviews are the most common form of qualitative data collection, although merriam does not stipulate prioritizing a particular method for data collection or analysis, she does emphasize the importance of rigorous procedures to frame the research process. This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach. Merriam (1998) maintains a constructivist approach to case study research, whereby the researcher assumes that reality is constructed intersubjectively through meanings and understandings developed socially and experientially.
As a result, some case study approaches are either quantitatively or qualitatively orientated while others encompass both qualitative and quantitative aims and methods (merriam, 2009 miles, huberman & saldana, 2014 yin, 2014). Here, anthropologists practiced their methods on university cultures or by conducting lengthy case studies involving field-based observations of groups with the aim of understanding their social and cultural lives (creswell et al. Validity of research results are verified through the scrutiny of others and, as such, adherence to mechanisms that ensure rigor in data collection and analysis is vital. Primarily exploratory and explanatory in nature, case study is used to gain an understanding of the issue in research questions (flyvbjerg, 2011 merriam, 2009 simons, 2009 stake, 2006 stewart, 20). Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researchers preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. Such investigations were conducted in the natural setting of those experiences with results presented descriptively or as a narrative (merriam, 2009). The versatility of case study research to accommodate the researchers philosophical position presents a unique platform for a range of studies that can generate greater insights into areas of inquiry. Over the last 50 years, case study has been re-established as a credible, valid research design that facilitates the exploration of complex issues. Interviews and focus groups, observations, and exploring artifacts are most commonly employed to collect and generate data with triangulation of methods and data, however, this is not exclusive. The goal of this alignment is to engender coherence between the researchers philosophical position, their research question, design, and methods to be used in the study (farquhar, 2012 luck et al.case study as a research method 2 investigate contemporary real-life phenomenon through detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions, and ...
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science (NCCSTS)The case study method of teaching applied to college science teaching, from The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
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With the dominance of logical positivism from the 1940s through to the 1960s and 1970s case study methodology was viewed with skepticism and criticism. The integration of formal, statistical, and narrative methods in a single study, combined with the use of empirical methods for case selection and causal inference, demonstrated the versatility of case study design and made a significant contribution to its methodological evolution (ibid. As the figure highlights, early case studies were conducted in the social sciences. National center for case study teaching in science, university at buffalo. Often these terms are used interchangeably without definitional clarity.
Grounded theory merged qualitative field study methods from the chicago school of sociology with quantitative methods of data analysis (johansson, 2003, p Buy now Multiple Case Study Design
Consequently, over the last 40 years, through the application of a variety of methodological approaches, case study research has undergone substantial development. Advocating for careful planning, development, and execution of case study research, merriam (1998, 2009) discusses the pragmatic structures that ensure case study research is manageable, rigorous, credible, and applicable. In this article, we examine each of these issues in turn, with the aim of improving our understanding of case study research and clarifying the requisite tenets to consider when designing a case study. National center for case study teaching in science, university at buffalo. Antecedents of modern day case study research are most often cited as being conducted in the chicago school of sociology between the 1920-1950s (stewart, 2014) Multiple Case Study Design Buy now
Similar to stake (1995, 2006), merriam (1998, 2009) was not as structured in her approach as yin (2014), but promoted the use of a theoretical framework or research questions to guide the case study and organized, systematic data collection to manage the process of inquiry. While some may argue that mixing qualitative and quantitative methods could threaten the veracity of the research (boblin et al. Like yin (2014), merriam (1998, 2009) asserts that when information is plentiful and concepts abstract, it is important to utilize processes that help interpret, sort, and manage information and that adapt findings to convey clarity and applicability to the results. The goal of this alignment is to engender coherence between the researchers philosophical position, their research question, design, and methods to be used in the study (farquhar, 2012 luck et al Buy Multiple Case Study Design at a discount
For the researcher new to using case study, such variety can create a confusing platform for its application. While over time the contributions of researchers from varied disciplines have helped to develop and strengthen case study research, the variety of disciplinary backgrounds has also added complexity, particularly around how case study research is defined, described, and applied in practice. Key contributors to the development of case study agree that the focus of a case study is the detailed inquiry of a unit of analysis as a bounded system (the case), over time, within its context. Consequently, various designs have been proposed for preparing, planning, and conducting case study research with advice on key considerations for achieving success Buy Online Multiple Case Study Design
Methods were required that could be used to explore factors such as participants perspectives and the influence of socio-political contexts on curriculum successes and failures (simons, 2009). Sociologists and anthropologists investigated peoples lives, experiences, and how they understood the social and cultural context of their world, with the aim of gaining insight into how individuals interpreted and attributed meaning to their experiences and constructed their worlds (johansson, 2003 simons, 2009). Across the literature, case study is referred to as a methodology and a method, an approach, research and research design, research strategy, andor a form of inquiry (anthony & jack, 2009 brown, 2008 creswell, 2014 gerring, 2004 merriam, 2009 simons, 2009, stake, 1995, 2006 stewart, 2014 yin, 2014) Buy Multiple Case Study Design Online at a discount
The fundamental elements of case study research (table 1) are evident in the approaches of merriam (2009), stake (1995, 2006), and yin (2014) as well as other case study researchers who have contributed to the development and discussion of case study research (creswell, 2013, 2014 flyvbjerg, 2011 george & bennett, 2007 miles et al. Mn(ed) is a phd candidate in the college of healthcare sciences, division of tropical health and medicine, james cook university, australia. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research an integrative review. Therefore, emphasis is placed on using multiple methods with triangulation to circumvent errors and understand what is happening in reality as close as possible to the truth (lincoln et al Multiple Case Study Design For Sale
In this way, merriams perspective brings forth a pragmatic approach to constructivist inquiry. This involves being selective and specific in identifying the parameters of the case including the participants, location andor process to be explored, and establishing the timeframe for investigating the case (merriam, 2009 stake, 2006 yin, 2014). This range accentuates the flexibility of case study research as a distinct form of inquiry that enables comprehensive and in-depth insight into a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. Merriam (2009) acknowledges case study research can use both quantitative and qualitative methods however, when working on qualitative case studies, methods aimed at generating inductive reasoning and interpretation rather than testing hypothesis take priority For Sale Multiple Case Study Design
In this way, merriams perspective brings forth a pragmatic approach to constructivist inquiry. Phd is professor and head of nursing, midwifery and nutrition at james cook university, australia. Brown (2008) sums up the influences of each, saying that case study research is supported by the pragmatic approach of merriam, informed by the rigour of yin and enriched by the creative interpretation described by stake (p. Each methodology is unique in approach depending on the ontological and epistemological stance, however all stem from the motivation to explore, seek understanding, and establish the meaning of experiences from the perspective of those involved (ibid. According to yin what makes case study research distinct from experimental studies is the case study is investigated in context, examined in its real world setting (p Sale Multiple Case Study Design
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